It’s the little rotors’ turn to turn, turn, turn…hmmm…I should put that to music.

Like the Little Engine that Could, some rotors just refuse to accept limitations. There is a whole bunch of over-achiever rotors available for smaller systems or smaller areas just eager to show you what they can do. Retro-fitting an old system? Need to cover a smaller area? Only have a ½” supply line? Listen! You can hear them yelling “Pick me! Pick me!”

Take a look at the K-Rain MiniPro, the  Hunter PGJ, the Toro Mini-8  and the Rain Bird 3500. Designed for smaller areas and retrofits these rotors fit areas too small for standard rotors but too large for standard spray heads. Coverage on these range from a low of 15’ to a high of 37’. Since most spray nozzles stop at 15’ and most rotors start at 25’+/- this fits right in.

Since they use a ½” connection you don’t need to run new pipe to get the same type coverage as their bigger siblings and you can match their precipitation rate. Have an older system that no longer provides the head to head coverage it should? Simply use these to regain coverage and possibly eliminate a head or two. For example, if your spray heads are 15’ apart you can replace each head with one of these set for 15’ or you could replace every other head with one of these set for 30’, eliminating the middle head.

For mid-range coverage they do everything the bigger rotors do and do it just as well.  And they are far more enthusiastic.

Once again I want to say that our talented graphics department had nothing to do with these graphics. Don’t want to embarrass them.

Why didn’t the soil sensor want to party with the rain and rain/freeze sensors? BECAUSE THEY WERE ALL WET! Hahahaha…get it? All wet? Huh? Never mind….

I could have said “because he was well grounded and they were stuck up!” Would that have been any better? No?  Ok. I’ll stop.

Today’s controllers can do a number of things: multiple programs and start times, rain delays, soak cycles and more. They do it routinely, day in and day out, like nice little robots. But what happens if the conditions change? What if you don’t need more water? Tropical storm comes through and drops six inches of rain and your system is still running? What if your grandma is showing her favorite ice hockey moves on your frozen driveway? Need more ice?

Sensors are the answer. A sensor will turn your system off when there has been enough rain, or a freeze hits or if your soil just doesn’t need the water. This saves money on your water bill and, in the case of freezing, can prevent that lawsuit from when Grandma misses the goal and the puck flies across the ice into your neighbor’s window.

The simplest is the rain sensor. Easy to set, almost maintenance free. The rain sensor connects to your controller, either in a direct wire or wireless connection, and stops irrigation after a certain amount of rain has fallen. You mount it in an open area, such as the eaves of your house. You determine the amount of rain that causes the shut down, usually from 1/8” to 1”. To set the sensor you simply turn the top to the proper setting. That’s it. Rain comes down, sensor gets wet. When it gets wet enough it stops irrigation. Some rain sensors suspend irrigation immediately during rain events without need for rainfall accumulation. It rains, they stop.

Rain/freeze sensor. A rain/freeze sensor handles rain just like the standard rain sensor, either on accumulation or immediately upon rainfall. They add the advantage of shutting irrigation down before the water sprays and icicles and ice patches form on your yard and drive. The most common sensors stop activity when the temperature reaches about 37 degrees. Some models let you choose the shut off temperature, ranging from 35 to 45 degrees. The irrigation remains off until the temperature warms to above the freeze cut off settings. The rain/freeze sensor looks pretty much like a standard rain sensor.

The moisture sensor is a different kind of creature. The moisture sensor is buried in the ground, not up high. It doesn’t care if it rains or freezes. All it cares about is keeping the correct amount of water in the soil. If the soil has sufficient moisture it interrupts the irrigation cycle. Too much water in the soil can be just as harmful as too little. The moisture sensor aims for the proper range of moisture.  When the soil gets too dry it turns the cycle back on. With a direct read on soil moisture you don’t worry about wasting water through unnecessary irrigation.

With the proper sensors you can save water and money by watering only when needed. You also decrease liability by preventing icicles  and hazardous ice patches on the drive and walk.  The only downside is that Grandma might be upset you took her ice rink away.

The sprinkler rotor keeps moving and the spray head won’t budge. Which one is right?

Congratulations. You just bought a football team. Now you have a football field to water. You decide to use pop up spray heads with a 15’ radius. You can get a very efficient pattern of coverage with only 147 spray heads. Of course, you’ll constantly repair them as the players will stomp them into the ground. If, after a tackle, a player comes up with a spray nozzle in his nose I extend my sympathies to you.

How about planting a flower garden? Oh, about 6’ wide x 20’ long. Now I’ll use a rotor to irrigate it. For highest efficiency I’ll plant the rotor about 20’ past the end of the garden, spraying back in. I’ll also set it’s rotation to the standard minimum 40o angle, which means it also waters an extra 21’ of yard at the end of its arc. Hope that doesn’t hit your sidewalk.

People get confused about which type of sprinkler to use. On the one hand rotors put out a lot of water and move all around. Must be good, right?

Spray heads have a fixed radius, usually 15’ or less, and just serenely apply this efficient fan of water. No wasted movement, no back and forth agitation. Must be good, right?

The decision on which to use is simple. Answer these questions and the answer falls into place.

1. Is your distance less than 25’? If so, go with popup spray heads. The most popular rotors can’t get any closer than 22’, usually 25’ plus.

2. Wide open area? More than 25’ each direction? Rotors would work.

3. In a planter? Spray head

4. Following the curve of a walkway? Spray head

5. Narrow strip between houses? Spray head

6. Open area now, as in question #2, but you intend to put in planters later? Spray head

7. Football/baseball/soccer field? Rotors

8. Around your deck and pool in back yard? Spray head

The differences

Rotors are designed for open areas. They spray a large volume of area in a back and forth motion, either full or partial circle. Typical distances for residential are 22’ to 50’. There are some that will go down to 15’ but these aren’t normally used in good efficient designs. They are usually used to fix a problem somewhere or to help compensate for a bad design.

Spray heads are usually used on pop up bodies. They spray a consistent amount of water over a fixed area. They are available in various radii and patterns, along with adjustable pattern spray heads. This makes them very adaptable to any situation. In the eight questions above, notice that only two indicate rotors. Also that #2 and #7 are essentially the same thing, so only one situation fits rotors. After that, it’s spray heads.

Or drip. But there is already an article on that.

The Fourth of July and what I can’t do.

Well, I tried and couldn’t do it. Couldn’t figure out how to tie the Fourth of July into irrigation systems.

You’d think this would be easy. I’ve tied in zombies, Corvettes, the Bellagio and the Nile river into some aspect of irrigation: stream rotors, insecticides, nozzles and water barrels.

These have, admittedly, been a stretch at times.  Big stretch.  Can’t do it this time.

Instead, the staff at Sprinkler Warehouse hopes that you and yours have an enjoyable holiday. This is the day that started our country. On July 4th, 1776 the Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, one of the most important documents in history. It’s the reason we are here. It’s a great day to enjoy and celebrate our freedoms.

Be careful with the fireworks. From experience I’ll tell you that you don’t want to hold bottle rockets in your hand, firecrackers going off in an open palm DO hurt, you don’t want to bend down to see if the rocket fuse is really lit, if you drop your sparkler don’t try and catch it by the wrong end and the best way to enjoy fireworks is to sit back and let someone else do the work.

Y’all have a good holiday.

Pipe Dreams? Or PVC Pipe dreams? There is a difference.

If you don’t know the difference we can’t help you here. This is not that kind of a blog. If you have nightmares about figuring out which pipe to use for your irrigation then we can help.

PVC stands for polyvinyl chloride. PVC is easier to say. PVC pipe accounts for about two thirds of the water distribution market, including drinking, irrigation and waste. So far the material has been found to be inert, meaning it doesn’t absorb or release harmful chemicals. Unless you burn it. Don’t sniff burning PVC.  It’s no fun, painful and the smoke can be hazardous.

The most common question we get is a two-parter: what size pipe should I use and what kind: Schedule 40 or Class 200? Knowing the differences can help you create an efficient system.

Remember the old “a picture is worth a thousand words” quote? I’ll give you a picture now and you can decide if you want to skip the other 476 words.

Let’s talk about Schedule 40 pipe first. It is the simplest. Schedule XX designates the wall thickness at a certain size. For example, a 1” pipe in schedule 40 has a wall thickness of .133”; schedule 80 has a wall thickness of .179”. Higher schedule = thicker wall.

You will care about this later. It does get more interesting, hopefully.

“Class” pipe is different and the original definitions go back to steam boilers. We’ll skip ahead. Class 200 pipe, the most common class pipe used in irrigation, is rated for 200 pounds per square inch pressure (psi) and has a wall thickness of .063” for a 1” pipe. Notice that is a lot thinner than schedule 40. This is about to become very important. Schedule 40, in comparison, is rated for 450 psi. This is not as important.

The average irrigation system is designed for about 30 to 50 psi. Plenty of safety factor built in. It is not, however, as much as you think. A poorly designed system can experience water hammer and a 60psi line can experience frequent surges of pressure up to about 170 psi. Still within safety range.

Now we can get into the “why do we care” part.  Everything in irrigation ties into gallons per minute. Your spray head puts out a certain number of gallons per minute (gpm). Your design revolves around it. If you have 13 gpm you can put six 2 gpm heads on that zone. Or four 2gpm and four 1 gpm. (Never design to the absolute max gpm.)

Look at the cross section of ¾” and 1” pipe both in schedule 40 and class 200. Check the comparative flows in the picture above. This difference in flow can make a big difference in how you design your zones. There are friction loss/flow charts available to help you.

So what do you choose? The rule of thumb is to use schedule 40 for the main line. Run it from the water meter, through the backflow and to the valves. Then use class 200 for the laterals, or after the valves.

Why schedule 40 when it allows fewer gallons per minute? Because the thick wall makes it tougher, harder to break. Your main is under constant pressure; the laterals are under pressure only when they are active and it is an open-end system. Before real pressure can build in your laterals the water is shooting out the sprays, keeping pressure down. Schedule 40 is more resistant to shovels (its sworn enemy), tent stakes, car tires, kids, dogs and other puncture/crack pressures.

There are exceptions to everything. There are situations where an entire system should be done in class 200 pipes. Same for schedule 40.  Now that you know the difference you can make a more informed decision and start dreaming about better things, like a 1973 Norton Commando.

Backflow = upchuck? Eeeewww…

Most people know they need a backflow for their irrigation system. They just don’t know why. I’m going to work this backwards. First I’ll show what can happen if a backflow is missing or broken. Then I’ll tell you how they work and why you want one for your system.

From the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources: “One of the most highly publicized cases of a backflow incident occurred in 1969 at Holy Cross University. The football season was canceled due to a large outbreak of infectious hepatitis among the team members. It was determined that backflow through an unprotected lawn sprinkler system at the practice football field caused the epidemic. Children carrying the hepatitis virus routinely played in puddles around the sprinkler heads. Fire fighting demands in the vicinity caused negative pressures at the sprinkler heads backsiphoning the contaminated water into the drinking water supply to the field.

One of the most famous cases of backflow occurred in California. A laborer had been using an aspirator attached to a garden hose to spray a driveway with weed-killer containing arsenic. At sometime during his work, the water pressure reversed. The man then disconnected the hose and unwittingly drank from the hose bib. Arsenic in the waterline killed him.”

Thirsty yet? Try this from the Environmental Protection Agency: “In 1991, an atmospheric vacuum breaker valve intended to protect a cross-connection between an irrigation system and the potable supply malfunctioned, allowing backflow of irrigation water into the public water system. The water system, located in Michigan, was contaminated with nematodes, rust, and debris.

In 1981, chlordane and heptachlor were backsiphoned through a garden hose submerged in a termite exterminator’s tank truck in Pennsylvania. An undisclosed number of illnesses occurred, and 75 apartment units were affected.”

THE BASICS If you lose water pressure to your house, for whatever reason, the water in the house will flow out to the main line. Because pressure is now reversed, going from house to main line, it creates a siphon effect and will pull anything in the sprinkler system and in the puddles around the sprinkler system with it. If your garden hose was on at the same time it becomes a siphon hose. Now all the fertilizer, insecticide, animal waste and many other things you don’t want are pulled into the drinking water.

GARDEN HOSE Notice the two involving garden hoses? How many of us drink from a garden hose when working outside on a hot summer day? Ever use that same hose to put out pesticides or fertilizer? Have a backflow preventer on the hose bib? Cheap, cheap protection.

I think it is important at this time to note that our very talented graphics department has absolutely nothing to do with the illustrations in this article. I stole their work and added my own touches.  I get the blame.

IRRIGATION SYSTEM Same principal. Have another bad drawing. A backflow works by shutting down the irrigation water line when you lose water pressure. The simplest works just like a stopper in your bathtub: a plug falls down, blocks the line. They get far more complicated, depending on application.

Don’t listen to your neighbor, me, anyone else on what type of backflow you should get. Ask your city or county or your water provider. In my area a pressure vacuum breaker is plenty. Two miles away a new jurisdiction starts and they insist on double-checks. Always verify local code requirements first.

To find out the different types of backflows look at the backflow section on To learn more about how they work check out backflows in Sprinkler School.

And stop drinking from your garden hose until it’s protected. Lemonade sounds better anyway.

And How Did You Tie Corvettes Into Sprinkler Nozzles?

Life is good. You just bought your first Corvette with all the features: 6.2 liter 430-hp LS3 V8, Bose® audio system, head-up display and, to top it off,  Mickey Thompson Baja Claw TTC radial tires for off-road mudding! Race track here we come!

Life gets better! You just moved into your dream home: ocean view, indoor pool, master chef kitchens (two, so you don’t have to walk too far), a personal theater furnished by Home Theater Gear, a private elevator and, out back, your own personal outhouse!  Time for a party!

In any system all parts must work equally to achieve the desired results. Let’s trade the Baja Claw tires for Goodyear Eagle F1 Run-Flats and see if we can’t get some plumbing into your new mansion.

Nozzles are the final and one of the most critical parts of your irrigation system. It does not mattop of a sprinkler nozzleter how good the system is; putting in the wrong nozzle will make it ineffective and a money waster.

Understanding nozzles is simple. For one, the notes you need are written right on top. It’s like having the answers to your history test on the same line as the question.

Look at the top of a standard nozzle. You’ll see three things: a number, a letter and some lines. On this sample the “10” means 10 foot radius, the “H” means Half Circle, or 180 degree coverage, and the line indicate the spray area. This notation is standard throughout the industry. A full circle nozzle has the distance and pattern but no line marks.

Specialty Nozzles

There are nozzles designed just for gardens and small areas. These are strip nozzles. Their patterns are as shown below.

sprinkler nozzle strip pattern diagram

Variable Nozzles

Variable nozzles are just that: variable. They can adjust spray patterns from 00 to 3600. Marking on these are usually the radius and either A for adjustable or VAN  or simply arrows pointing in both directions. These are excellent for small or unusual angles. To adjust you just turn the top ring or the side ring, depending on manufacturer.  Extremely versatile.

variable arc nozzles spray pattern diagram


Every manufacturer has specialty nozzles. Some are low angle, some are low flow, some have different nozzle design. Each has its benefits.  All, however, fall back to the same basic descriptions: they all have a radius/distance marking, they all have a pattern description.


There can be a great deal of difference in the amount of water two nozzles from different companies put out. For example a Hunter 15’ full pattern standard nozzle at 30psi puts out 3.72 gallons per minute (GPM). A Toro Precision series, same radius, pattern and pressure, puts out 2.31gpm.  That is a difference of 1.41gpm per minute.  Both fit a need and have a specific purpose. However, you do not want to mix the Hunter and the Toro on the same zone. You will either over or under water one area.

It is important to stay with the same manufacturer on nozzles to keep the same precipitation rates.

One Final Note

Most nozzles are female thread and will swap brand to brand without a problem. Some nozzles are male thread and are for certain brands only. Female thread tends to dominate the industry but make sure of what you have before you purchase replacements.

sprinkler nozzle threads

Every thing is good. You have the right tires, an actual indoor privy and perfect coverage for your yard.

Why Just Florida? Are they the only ones that can index valves?

What does Florida know about irrigation that the rest of the country doesn’t? Why do they use more of a surprisingly simple and effective device than any other state? Especially when you consider how much money this device can save? Do I sound like a late-night infomercial yet?

Take a look at the K-Rain Indexing valve. This valve lets you irrigate up to six zones without installing and wiring six different valves.  Each time the waters turns off and back on the valve waters a different zone.  There is a really smart disc inside that advances to the next zone when pressure drops. Water zone one, stop water for a few moments, start water, water zone two, etc. Automatically.

Yes, it looks strange. We don’t care: it works great.  These are commonly installed either on a direct feed from a pump or downstream of a single solenoid valve. The way it works is simple. Say you are using a solenoid valve. The valve comes on. Zone one on the index valve opens and water goes to zone one. The solenoid valve turns off. The index resets to zone two. The master valve comes on, zone two waters. Repeat for three through six. These are available with either four or six outlets; a six outlet is shown.

If you are working off a pump then each time the pump cycles the valve advances.  This completely eliminates the need for a solenoid valve and the related wiring and controller.  These valves work with flows as low as 10 GPM and at pressures of 25 to 75 PSI.

A great feature is the possibility of future expansion. Say you only have two zones but plan on expanding. You can get the four outlet model with a two zone cam. Down the line you can change the cam out to allow for three or four zones. Just keep the two future outlets capped off until then. The four zone outlet pattern is shown; the six zone is similar.

Here we have one valve that eliminates the need for any solenoid valves if working directly off a pump and eliminates the need for all but one if working off a municipal system supply. No wonder Florida loves it. Money saved on valves and money saved on wiring. Labor saved by not installing the other valves and wiring. Labor saved = money saved.  Order now. Operators are standing by. Or the website is, anyway. And if you order in the next 10 minutes you’ll have plenty of time to do something else today! So hurry!

Zombies coming? You need a rain barrel!

You’re wondering how I’m going to tie zombies in with rain barrels, aren’t you? It’s easy. First I want to talk about rain barrels and why you want one.

I generally believe that “free” is better than “costs money.”  I really like “free” when it’s going to be handed to me with no effort on my part. Rainwater is free. Tap water costs money. Twice. It costs when you get it and you pay for sewage when it goes away. It’s going to cost more as time goes by. Population growth and nationwide drought means we don’t always have all the water we need. Water is becoming hard to get and “hard to get” always means “expensive.”

As water becomes scarcer, regulations on its use will increase. If you want to know where your water regulations are heading, check out  San Antonio, Texas or Santa Fe, New Mexico. They are hurting for water. Examples are: you may not wash your car more than once a month; you may not use water to clean your driveway or patio, no fountain or waterfalls in any landscaping, indoors or out. Only water your lawn once a week. More and more restrictions are being established to make sure there is enough water for survival.  Survival does not mean washing your car or filling your swimming pool.  And it doesn’t mean watering your garden.

Back to rain. Rain does a very good job of watering your yard and your garden. Besides the fact that it is free, it is also pretty clean. Tap water has all kinds of chemicals your plants don’t want or need. Rain is soft water, readily absorbed by your plants. No iron deposits to stain, no calcium build up, just water.

RTS Northland Water Storage Tank

Just because it is raining doesn’t mean you are using it. Rain falls on your house at the rate of about a half gallon of water per square foot of roof area during a 1-inch rainfall. If you have a 2,000 square foot roof you can collect around 1,000 to 1,200 gallons of water. What do you pay now for 1,000 gallons of water? Why are you giving it all away?

Rain barrels collect water from your downspouts and put it where you can use it. Most residential rain barrels hold around 50 gallons. They have faucets for your water hose and can be linked together to increase capacity. They come in numerous colors and designs to blend into your landscaping. Put one in your front yard, one in your back and one in the garden.  If you figure you need to have ½” of water  to irrigate your garden then 50 gallons can irrigate about 160 square feet at a time. With no time/day restrictions.Woodgrain flat back rain barrel

Ok, it’s zombie time. For many people, “zombies” is short hand for TEOTWAWKI. That stands for The End Of The World As We Know It.  You know: civilization collapses, you have no electricity, no running water, no cell phone, nuthin’. Your world just fell apart around you.

It doesn’t take a deadly mutant virus to cause this. Hurricanes will. Earthquakes will. Wild fires will. Don’t forget tornadoes.  All of these can bring your normal world to a screaming halt. All of these can leave you without a domestic water supply.

Besides watering plants, water from rain barrels can be used to flush toilets, wash your hands, clean counters, furniture and floors, top off your car radiator, and, if really desperate, wash your clothes. You’ll be surprised at how useful 100 gallons of water can be when your water supply is cut off.

The water from a rain barrel is better for your plants, it’s free and it’s not subject to watering restrictions for time or day.  And it’s zombie proof.  That’s a hard combination to beat.

The Right Way to Assemble and Glue PVC Pipe

There are many ways to glue PVC pipe and a number of solvents.  The bright side is most of them will work. The down side is many of them won’t, wasting time and money, or only appear to work until the pipe is long buried. Then it becomes expensive.

We are going to discuss measuring, fitting and gluing pipe. The premise is that if you do it correctly you only do it once. Not to mention limiting trips to the hardware store and controlling blood pressure.

Before we do anything else, there are two warnings. One on safety, one on product performance.

  • Folks, these are harsh chemicals. Don’t get them on your skin. Definitely don’t get them in your eyes. No breathing fumes. Make sure you have plenty of ventilation, as in ‘do it outside’. Wear gloves. Wear eye protection. Care to guess what the cement does to plastic contacts or your expensive glasses?
  • There is such a thing as too much glue. This is not Elmer’s Paste. If you put too much cement on and it has a chance to puddle it can and will eat through the pipe or fitting. Now you have a hole in the fitting. Also, too much glue when attaching valves can drip into the valve body and cause failure.

First, get these things together:

  • Rags
  • Primer and cement
  • Something to put the pipe on while you cut (sawhorse, cinder block, table, etc.)
  • Gloves
  • Hacksaw
  • Marker or crayon
  • Rough file or course sandpaper

Optional but you should have

  • Miter box
  • Pipe cutter, preferably ratcheting type though standard will work fine.
  • Hammer/Channel Lock pliers

Measuring is the shortest part of this paper. Remember that you have to include the length of pipe that goes into the fitting and the length of the fitting. Say you have a 10’ section from corner to corner.  The fittings add length. You need to figure out how short to cut the pipe so you can add the fittings and still get 10’.  How far does the pipe go into the fitting?  Depends. Depends on the cut, the pipe, your strength.  There is a stop designed into the fitting. How far in is it? To find out, take the pipe and fitting, get them wet with water only, and push the pipe into the fitting with firm but not killer force. The water makes it easier to slide them together. Now take a pencil and mark the pipe at the edge of the fitting. Twist the pipe back out. The distance from that mark to the end of your pipe is your glue area. This can vary depending on fittings and pipe size.  Measure everything twice. Write it down.

Cutting the pipe is more important that people realize. The cut should be square and smooth.   If you don’t cut it square the short end will not make complete contact with the inside of the fitting and will not bond as it should. It helps to use a miter box, if you can, or good ratcheting cutters. Take your time. It will help avoid problems later.

Ideally the end of the pipe should be smooth with tapered edges. Now I know you don’t hear many people talking about tapering a PVC pipe edge. You’ve probably never seen it and I know many professionals that have never even heard of it. However, we’re discussing the correct way to do this. You can bring in the shortcuts when I’m not looking. If you have a simple square cut pipe it has a tendency to push the cement ahead of it, as in the drawing. A smooth pipe with an edge taper lets the cement flow between the two. So take your file, file off the burrs that are left from the cutting, if any, and add a quick taper to the end. At the very least use sand paper to smooth the edges and take off any burrs.

On to fittings.  Once you have your pipe cut do a practice assembly. We do this to make sure we don’t glue the elbow on facing the wrong direction. Lay the pipe out along the trenches. Put the elbows, Tee’s and 45’s on just as if you were putting it in the trench. Once you are sure it is correct draw a line on the fitting and pipe with a marker or crayon. This will help line it up for you when the cement is on and drying fast.

Ok. Pipes are cut, fittings are ready. Now time for primer and glue. First I’d like to clarify one thing. It’s not really glue or cement. It’s a solvent. The solvent basically melts the PVC. When two pieces of PVC are joined using PVC cement the plastic melts, molecules blend, and it re-solidifies to a single unit.  That’s a gross simplification of what happens but its close enough.  When the cement is through and the PVC has re-solidified it is now the strongest piece. If you do it right the fitting or pipe will break long before the joint.

The first thing you do is make sure the pipes and fittings are dry. There are some cements that don’t need primer and will work with a wet pipe but we tend to avoid them. First, using primer gives us a last chance to check the pipe. You’d be surprised how often a small crack will hide until the primer hits it. . The other reason is that special cement tends to set FAST. Real fast.  No room for error or hesitation. Why ask for trouble?

Now prime both the pipe and the fitting. Use just enough to do the job. Too much doesn’t gain you anything. Using the included dauber wipe the glue area of the pipe and the glue area of the fitting with primer. Since it’s purple it’s easy to keep track. By the way, it stains everything so be careful. Primer removes dirt and grease and preps the PVC. When PVC is formed it has a hard, clear coating on it. This is resistant to the cement. Primer removes the coating, exposing the PVC.

Now apply the cement to both pieces. Do the fitting first. Since the cement is inside you can lay it down for a moment while you coat the pipe. Once both are done push the pipe into the fitting, turning about ¼ to ½ turn as you go. This makes sure the cement spreads evenly. Hold it together for about 15 to 30 seconds. Because of the chemical reaction and the way the fittings are formed there is a tendency for push back. The pipe will want to come out so hold until is sets.  If you’ve done everything correctly you can look around the edge of the fitting and see a little glue bead that has been push out by the fitting. It should be continuous. A gap might mean a pinhole leak later. Wipe off any excess cement.

I know. I didn’t say what you did with the pliers or hammer. That’s ok. They are always good to have.

That’s it. Doing takes far less time than reading about it. Doing it correctly doesn’t add any time and sure can save you a headache in the future.